Vitenskap og teknologi

How did NASA Steer the Saturn V?- Smarter Every Day 223

Get your 1st Audiobook + 2 Audible Originals Free when you try Audible for 30 days: or text "smarter" to 500 500
Behind the Scenes:
View Linus's video:
Functional Requirements for the Launch Vechile Digital Computer
Launch Vehicle Digital Computer
Dr. von Braun (seated) examining a Saturn computer in the Astrionics Laboratory at the Marshall Space Flight Center
U.S. Space & Rocket Center,_Alabama
IBM's page on the Saturn Guidance Computer
Tweet Ideas to me at:
Smarter Every Day on Facebook
Smarter Every Day on Patreon
Smarter Every Day On Instagram
Smarter Every Day SubReddit
Ambiance, audio and musicy things by: Gordon McGladdery
If you feel like this video was worth your time and added value to your life, please SHARE THE VIDEO!
If you REALLY liked it, feel free to pitch a few dollars Smarter Every Day by becoming a Patron.
Warm Regards,


  1. SmarterEveryDay


    10 dager siden

    I would like to point out several things: 1. Luke Talley is awesome. 2. Every single frame of this video requires more memory storage than this memory module is capable of handling. Think about that. 3. On the second channel we talk about things like how they took into account gyroscopic precession with this bad boy. They also crashed this into the moon and used the signal as a way to figure out what the inside of the moon is like. It's a good video, you should consider watching it. ( ) 4. This is not the Apollo computer. This is the Saturn V computer. They're different. This steered the rocket. 5. People that support Smarter Every Day on Patreon are really cool and I like them a lot. ( )

    • I_Am_The_One


      Dag siden

      My AP physics teacher worked on Saturn 5 😂😂😂

    • Don Mayfield

      Don Mayfield

      Dag siden

      Did Steve Spielberg meet this Luke and choose his name for his Luke?

    • Hockey Town USA

      Hockey Town USA

      2 dager siden

      What is the best way to cool a one floor house letting air flow just go through the house with a fan just the fan shut windows doors no fan

    • dot


      2 dager siden

      -Matter didn’t create anti matter -Anti matter didn’t create matter (Both of them were present at the time of big bang) -Both of them didn’t create themselves. -Both of them came from an unimaginable source, that unimaginable source created matter and antimatter (everything) thats why it is known as “the creator” of everything. ------------ -and that unimaginable creator created all prophets (approx 124,000 from Prophet Adam to Prophet Mohammad pbuh) who introduced God/Allah (an unimaginable creator) as well as they came to us with the complete and beautiful guidance of mankind from the creator of mankind. Thank u :)

    • Barry Pickens

      Barry Pickens

      2 dager siden

      Destin, did you hit up my brother Tim Pickens, for the core memory? He's always got some cool stuff, being a self-taught rocket propulsion engineer. His thruster design used to be on the Bigelow Aerospace display in the Huntsville Space Center USA museum.

  2. nicotate07


    4 timer siden

    I love seeing my two favourite youtubers sharing the stuff they're passionate about!

  3. Ash Sherr

    Ash Sherr

    4 timer siden

    this is the prick that kidnapped jesse pinkman

  4. Zareer K'Maneck

    Zareer K'Maneck

    5 timer siden

    My 5 yr old boy and I love your videos. In fact your video on laminar flow impressed him so much that when he visits a fountain of any sort that is all he looks for. Can you do a video explaining Prince Rupert's drops. Thanks.

  5. Qaveth


    5 timer siden

    Typical space videos by nasa, real life money loss, aka launching rockets into the sea with no humans, then cgi all the way till they end, last but not least recycle rocket from sea and repeat.

  6. burgershot


    10 timer siden


  7. Abhinav Sharma

    Abhinav Sharma

    15 timer siden

    Luke : "It was used in SATURN V" Linus : "But will it run CRYSIS?!"

  8. Terracom 7

    Terracom 7

    15 timer siden

    so I found a cool science anomaly that I haven't seen before and I searched it up and can't find it or an explanation. if you take a 2 by 4 block of aluminum and you put it on its side, so the short side is facing up. then if you slightly slant the block and roll a cylinder magnet down at a slight angle it will seem to bounce off the side of the wall as if there is an invisible barrier.

  9. Ken Haley

    Ken Haley

    22 timer siden

    At 2:00, you are describing "core" memory, which was the type of memory used in most computers up to around 1975-1980, when semiconductor memory first entered the scene. I worked on an IBM 1620, a 1401 and others, including a minicomputer made by a company called Microdata, which all used core memory. (I'm 72.) I still have three 8K memory boards from that Microdata computer. (Failure of this type of memory was common, so I decided to save boards when they were replaced.) I remember they were priced at $3,500 each back then, or around 5 cents/bit. At that rate, 16GB of RAM (128 billion bits), now commonplace in PC's, would cost 6.4 billion dollars (without accounting for inflation)! That's over double the entire Apollo program budget. (Good thing they didn't need 16GB.) Just as shown in this video, I can see the little cores arranged on the grid of wires. I was amazed back then, and I still find it impressive today. Here's an interesting fact about core memory: In order to read a bit, the computer would actually write a zero at that location. A sense wire running through all the bits on that plane would detect a pulse if that location originally contained a 1 because reversing the magnetic direction would induce that electric pulse. A second cycle was then required to restore the bit back to a 1 (or leave it as 0 if no pulse was detected). This was known as "destructive" read, requiring two machine cycles. One cycle on the Microdata was one microsecond (1 MHz). A modern CPU running at 4GHz is 4,000 times faster. But one cool thing: if the computer lost power, core memory was preserved! It wasn't 100% reliable, but often, when the computer was powered back on after a power failure, it could continue running where it left off! Anyway, I am wondering what to do with these memory boards. Right now, they're just gathering dust in my closet. Any ideas?

  10. Micha Grill

    Micha Grill

    Dag siden

    Not gonna lie that ad at the end was pretty salty :P

  11. Carlthehamster


    Dag siden

    ok now i love this episode because of linus and rockets xD

  12. Gydo194


    Dag siden

    of course Linus likes the cooling system the most LOL

  13. Oliver McIlwain

    Oliver McIlwain

    Dag siden

    Why do surfaces get dark when wet?

  14. mohammad ziad

    mohammad ziad

    Dag siden

    And then a flat earther come and say the space is fake.

  15. Eat Jat

    Eat Jat

    Dag siden

    747 dislikes. How ironic.

  16. Nathan Weisser

    Nathan Weisser

    Dag siden

    This video is supposed to be about a modern computer nerd and a 60s computer scientist interacting with each other, but what I'm more interested in is Linus being on the same screen as someone with a native Alabama accent lol

  17. Against NAZO!

    Against NAZO!

    Dag siden

    But what's with technology a few years later? Would the MOS 6502 Processsor of Comodore64 be enough to steer such a rocket?

  18. Klippy Klop

    Klippy Klop

    Dag siden

    very, very clever. Cut from a different cloth.

  19. Lisa Johnson

    Lisa Johnson

    Dag siden

    Absolutely INCREDIBLE!!! I remember getting up early in the morning in the 1960's to watch a rocket launch on TV and it was an amazing feat back in the day. To see this "computer" that made that happy is mind blowing. These guys were amazing and it worked. Thanks for this very cool video.

  20. donven33


    Dag siden

    Hey Dustin, I am a long time Audible client but still go and check out your recommendation everytime you make one. Just curious what else do you have in your Audible collection please? Thanks in advance!

  21. Astrowixa102 Elon

    Astrowixa102 Elon

    2 dager siden

    Saturn VRGB

  22. AJ Google

    AJ Google

    2 dager siden

    I'd appreciate more audiobooks recommendations :)

  23. mar sag

    mar sag

    2 dager siden

    these guys who made it in the '60s are authentical heroes!

  24. pawn pawnee

    pawn pawnee

    2 dager siden

    Flat earthers would like to disagree.

  25. ghanzo


    2 dager siden

    You can see the doubt building in Linus eyes, that the mission even happened.

  26. Paul Rickett

    Paul Rickett

    2 dager siden

    DumberEveryDay still hasn't figured out that the Apollo program never went to the moon. Earth is flat!

    • Xuin Penguin

      Xuin Penguin

      12 timer siden

      Absolutely agree!

  27. Jammy Pockets

    Jammy Pockets

    2 dager siden

    You get a free book on your first month of audible anyway, so what is the benefit of typing 'smarter'? Do you get an extra free book in your first month with this code?

  28. DeRiften


    2 dager siden

    Meanwhile today, people with no computer knowledge whatsoever can make complex games, and even the most basic of optimizations are a thing of the past. Engineers back then were goddamn geniuses

    • Roger Skagerström

      Roger Skagerström

      9 timer siden

      Well the ones today that makes all the stuff so easy "on the surface" aren't morons either :D Well.. Some on Microsoft must be. But generally ;)

  29. Shrop Shire

    Shrop Shire

    2 dager siden


  30. Technomaniac Dude

    Technomaniac Dude

    2 dager siden

    He was a dumb choice

  31. rahul suryawanshi

    rahul suryawanshi

    2 dager siden

    It was the passion of few peoples who broke all the barriers.. Hats off to them.. Wish I could be among them...

  32. John Goodman

    John Goodman

    3 dager siden

    What a fantastic insight from the wonderful gentleman who worked on creating those memory modules. Superb work. Thank you for putting this great video out :)

  33. ChrisCDXX


    3 dager siden

    You should zoom out more or sit farther back. No need to be all up in that camera dude. Love your videos!!

  34. poida84


    3 dager siden

    you should do a video about Hearing aids and cochlear implants

  35. Max Mcallister

    Max Mcallister

    3 dager siden

    After watching almost every one of your videos when you say "Lets go get smarter every day" still makes me smile with excitement about what I'm going to learn. Never change Destin, never change.

  36. imperiajor


    3 dager siden

    Awesome video man, Congrats ^-^

  37. rhkips


    3 dager siden

    Ohshi--You're here in Huntsville? Hahaha, awesome! I love coming over 565 and seeing that big ol' Saturn V poking out through the trees. This was SO cool!! Thank you for sharing this. :D

  38. 14598175


    3 dager siden

    Wait a minute...aren't you the guy who used to take 6-packs of beer over to Truman's home?

  39. Nicholas Lettiere

    Nicholas Lettiere

    3 dager siden

    Hey Destin, I have a question I was hoping you could answer? Could you "blind" a speed camera if you had license plate lights that were like infrared spotlights? And if so, is it possible for a light to put out both visible and infrared light simultaneously?

  40. TigerZero aka Allen

    TigerZero aka Allen

    3 dager siden

    I'm 61. I was there watching in real time the launch of Apollo 11. Then a decade later I gained a friend that worked for Western Union. He showed me there facility. Around 1980. They had 3 of the same model IBM computers that was used to launch the Apollo ship just to handle telegrams and showed me one one of those core memory boards. When one would fail, there was a husband and wife team that would fly out and replace that tiny ferrous core in the weave. They got paid 20 grand to do it. So I was told. Now in your computer. You have a failed 4 Gigabyte memory, had to spell it out, "card/stick"...... You replace, it at a cost less than 100 bucks.

  41. Chris Young

    Chris Young

    3 dager siden

    There have been a lot of videos posted recently regarding the 50th anniversary of Apollo 11. In another video (I'm sorry I don't remember where) they were talking about the Apollo guidance computer that was in the command module. It also talked about the core memory being hand wired. That video implied that the actual data was encoded in the wiring patterns. Such that if you wanted a bit "ON" you wire it one way and if you wanted a bit "OFF" you wired it a different way. I did not believe that for a minute. I was a computer science student in the early 70s in the days when mainframe computers had iron core memory and I knew that it was a programmable memory and not a ROM. It's hard enough to wire up those cores but the idea that they were looking at some sort of data dump with binary code and hardwiring the data into the cores seemed ridiculous to me. Your revelation that each time you read one of the cores you had to rewrite it to re-magnetize the core confirms for me but also this was mostly a read-only memory, that the actual program was not physically hardwired into it but was somehow programmed into it like a ROM memory. Can you confirm that the cores were all wired identically and then somehow programmed once assembled and that the program itself was not handwoven into the hardware?

    • spikester


      18 timer siden

      I do believe rope memory can be hardwired to be a mask ROM configuration so that does make sense. Some of the programs were woven into the ropes, some were non-volatile (mostly the development systems if I recall).

  42. Dark Thoughts

    Dark Thoughts

    3 dager siden

    I recall good ole core store back in the early 70s. We were told that they were made by Spanish lace weavers who had the dexterity.

  43. Graham


    3 dager siden

    All of this type of video merely illustrate how far technology has come since 1969, and thus the ever growing question of why exactly ZERO people have made it past LEO since these stories of them doing so.

  44. gk10002000


    3 dager siden

    I can't believe this computer geek had never heard of the computer history of this. Gosh those core photos and origins better not be lost on new kids beginning intro classes

  45. gk10002000


    3 dager siden

    i started engineering school in 1975. My first computer I used was an IBM 360 that still used magnetic core memory. heck the range safety computer at Vandenberg AFB where I was stationed 82-86 also used an old IBM. I really did use punch cards and batch process my programs. Drop them off and hope a day or two later it worked

    • Dean Pettikas

      Dean Pettikas

      3 dager siden

      I thought I was the last person left that remembered punch cards.

  46. Keith Lillis

    Keith Lillis

    3 dager siden

    Very, very interesting indeed!

  47. DERP-KING /mateo

    DERP-KING /mateo

    3 dager siden

    I think the moon landing is fake! Change my mind

    • DERP-KING /mateo

      DERP-KING /mateo

      Dag siden

      @Ozzy Man Diaz the rocket flew on a computer that is almost nothing, i doubt it that the moon landing is fake, but i consider it as an option. I mean that it is very hard to fly such a rocket that needs to be precisely aimed and controlled with a little pc that you can buy now for under 50€

    • Ozzy Man Diaz

      Ozzy Man Diaz

      2 dager siden

      trying to convince one of you people is like trying to convince a dog that the moon land is real. The difference is that a dog would agree if it could, but you idiots wouldn't!

  48. Dewey Tucker

    Dewey Tucker

    3 dager siden

    That thing could not navigate around your block. The moon landings are as valid as the theories of gravity. This logical statement always brings out the cockroach agent provocateurs.

  49. M S

    M S

    3 dager siden

    Simply genius 🤘

  50. mentalplayground


    3 dager siden


  51. ZandarKoad


    3 dager siden

    Breaking News: Linus Sebastian is in the hospital with a severe head wound. Police have an elderly man in custody as the primary suspect. News at 11.

    • Global Truth

      Global Truth

      Dag siden

      Actually the phrase is/was "film at 11". Yeah, I'm that old.

  52. john gallipani

    john gallipani

    3 dager siden

    🤔 ok but what did the rocket push off of and manipulate through?!, it’s was in a vacuum

  53. marianna poonka

    marianna poonka

    4 dager siden

    Of course Linus is here

  54. off7hewall


    4 dager siden

    I'm glad Linus didn't drop that.

  55. Dennis Ball

    Dennis Ball

    4 dager siden

    Why? ... why did he wait until the very end to say, "Those things were made by hand. The ladies actually wove these things like you're weaving a... piece of cloth"? The entire line of questioning assumed that this guy had a hand in the actual crafting of such tedious and delicate work. No discredit to Destin... the vital info is there.

  56. Deryck Beliveau

    Deryck Beliveau

    4 dager siden

    Is a word here two bytes?

  57. jozia


    4 dager siden

    RIP Grant

  58. Eugene Sesma III

    Eugene Sesma III

    4 dager siden

    Is it true that farmers can no longer fix their own tractors?

    • EvilPlagueDoctor


      2 dager siden

      Kinda, farm machinery is getting more and more computerised, and like apple, some companies (john Deere comes to mind as a particularly bad for this) they make it proprietary, so you need Thier specific programmer (or send it in, since they don't sell those programmers) to fix most things that are more complex than changing a belt.

  59. Les Rylett

    Les Rylett

    4 dager siden

    What a wonderful video. I was 24 years old when the first man stepped on the moon, and I am still learning how it was achieved. Amazing.

  60. Daniel Widyanto

    Daniel Widyanto

    4 dager siden

    The predecessor of PLA and modern FPGA. I believe it's more like system state design rather than 'if-then-else' sequential programming. We are still doing the byte-by-byte frame check in embedded industry btw (though bus analyzer is getting more common and cheaper)..

  61. Ramesh Nandi

    Ramesh Nandi

    4 dager siden

    Holi moli!!😢

  62. M.A. Zaki

    M.A. Zaki

    4 dager siden

    Luke's accent seems like he's from Kentucky or nearby and I liked it!

  63. Scott Mangels

    Scott Mangels

    4 dager siden

    Thank you so much for sharing that. I’m absolutely fascinated and even though technology is so much more advanced I feel many of those individuals were much more meticulous and intelligent than we have become.

  64. Ryan on the Island

    Ryan on the Island

    4 dager siden

    No one went to the Moon. Your channel should be “FooledbyNASAeEveryDay”

  65. texicon


    4 dager siden

    All designed with Slide Rules...

  66. J Bone

    J Bone

    4 dager siden

    In the 60's my grandfather invented a car that runs on water. He got 500 miles on 1 gallon. He crashed the car, and it blew up, destroying it completely. After walking home, he saw his house on fire. It burnt to the ground, destroying all the plans and tools he built the car with. My cousin says in 75 years from now he will be able to re-create the water car................ grandfather = nasa then cousin = nasa now water car = moon landing

  67. Sabri Ilma K

    Sabri Ilma K

    4 dager siden

    This is very awesomeeee

  68. Greenhouse


    4 dager siden

    oooohh bullshito

  69. Guzio


    4 dager siden

    They should REALLY not let Linus hold it...

  70. Bow Lavery

    Bow Lavery

    4 dager siden

    Is not wisdom found among the aged? Does not long life bring understanding?

  71. Vamavid


    4 dager siden

    Surprised Linus didnt know about it. I have known about that memory since I was 12 in '94 and I was in Africa. We had a great library at my school.

  72. Michael Gentleman

    Michael Gentleman

    5 dager siden

    That was so interesting listening about how those were threaded, you can see how proud he was. Thanks for this. :)

  73. ShotsFired andMissed

    ShotsFired andMissed

    5 dager siden


  74. Keaton Chatenay

    Keaton Chatenay

    5 dager siden

    Simply incredible! Luke is a gosh darn genius!! I could listen to that man talk for hours!

  75. John Matthias

    John Matthias

    5 dager siden

    So impressive. It would never have occured to me that adding more memory would detrimentally increase the complexity of the computer.

  76. Alfred Doubleday

    Alfred Doubleday

    5 dager siden

    Even back when I was in college (right around the turn of the millenium), that chunk of memory was a lot more relatable. That's right around the time programmers went from caring a whole lot about storage size to basically not caring much at all. Also just saw an article about the old TI-82 series calculators that had a whopping 20kb of memory to work with. Just the small picture advertising the article literally took up more data than the calculator could store (well, free memory). And yet, back then we still managed to put multiple games on there with graphics and all. It's hard to imagine these days what people had to do to get so much out of such little storage. Those engineers back then, and game programmers from the 80s and early 90s will probably never be matched again in their ability, now that computing resources are so abundant.

  77. Joseph Allen

    Joseph Allen

    5 dager siden

    This is just one of a zillion examples of how how amazing Apollo (and the entire space program in the 60’s) was. The scope of the effort is breathtaking considering everything that was required to pull this off. Amazing human minds, innovation and pure will power to design, build, test and execute the most amazing adventure humans have ever accomplished.

  78. EbenFlo


    5 dager siden

    Sheer badassery, much respect!

  79. Sam J

    Sam J

    5 dager siden

    As physics nerd, this blew my mind... Thanks for sharing!

  80. Steve Simon

    Steve Simon

    5 dager siden

    Amazing video Dustin. Thank you for inviting Linus :)